Bilingualism in Calca, Department of Cuzco, Peru

Hoggarth, Pauline (1973)


Locations of envy : an ethnography of Aguabuena potters

Castellanos Montes, Daniela (2012)

This thesis is an anthropological exploration of the envy of Aguabuena people, a small rural community of potters in the village of Ráquira, in the Boyacá region of Andean Colombia. Based on long-term ethnographic fieldwork among these potters, I propose an understanding of envy in Aguabuena as an existential experience, shaping relationships between the self and others in the world, crosscutting metaphysical and physical spheres, and balancing between corrosive and more empathetic ways of co-existence. Disclosing the multipresence of envy in Aguabuena’s world, its effects on people (including the ethnographer), and the way envy is embodied, performed, reciprocated and circumvented by the potters, I locate envy in various contexts where it is said to be manifested. Furthermore, I discuss the complex spectrum of envy and its multivalent meanings, or oscillations, in the life of Aguabuena people. I also present interactions with people surrounding potters, such as Augustinian monks, crafts middlemen, and municipal authorities, all of whom recount the envy of potters. My research challenges previous anthropological interpretations on envy and provides an alternative reading of this phenomenon. Moving away from labelling and regulatory explanations of envy, performative models, or pathological interpretations of the subject, I analyse the lived experience of envy and how it encompasses different realms of experience as well as flows of social relations. While focusing on the tensions and entanglements that envy brings to potters, as it constrains social life but also activates and reinforces social bonds, I examine the channels through which envy circulates and how it is put into motion by potters. Additionally, my thesis intends to contribute to anthropological studies of rural pottery communities in Andean Colombia. I present my unfolding understanding of envy by using both the potters’ concept and material detail, punto, location, referring to a spot from where Aguabuena people enter different vistas of the world, or denoting a precise time when things or materials change their physical qualities. Through this device, I disclose realms of envy, while seeking to immerse the reader in the lived experience of envy.


Metafreedom? The carnivalesque of freedom in a Brazilian favela

Lino e Silva, Moises (2012)

This thesis dwells on the existence of freedom in the life of people in a Brazilian favela (shantytown). The ethnography presents the dance of freedom with the full intensity of a carnivalesque. The exploration also ponders the existence of metafreedom (proposed as the freedom necessary for the expression of freedom) as a form of control over iterations of freedom. At the same time that it argues for a radical carnivalization of narratives of freedom, it flirts with the very limits of freedom as a concept and as a practice. One of the main contributions is in avoiding a reductive analysis of the concept of freedom, narrowing it to a simpler or alternative notion. Instead, the project presents the complex relations of five experienced objects – livre; livre-arbítrio; libertação; liberada and liberdade – to one another and to the life situations in which they come to existence in Favela da Rocinha in Rio de Janeiro. In methodological terms, the research argues that one of the ways to approach the topic of freedom from an ethnographic perspective is through the occurrences of linguistic expressions of freedom as objects that can be empirically experienced and registered by the ethnographer. It is mainly by making the complexities of freedom visible ethnographically, by tracing freedoms in their daily existence and by connecting these different kinds of freedom to diverse lived experiences and social contexts that the thesis advances the debate on freedom. The discussion of a carnivalesque of freedom in a Brazilian favela is also a call for a reflection on what ethnography as an empirical method, and anthropology more broadly, can offer to the understanding of freedom.


Polarities of difference : how Wapichannao negotiate identities within a creole state

Hope, Stacy A. A. (2011)

This thesis is an ethnographic account of how the Wapichannao, who are situated in the Rupununi of Guyana perceive themselves within the nation-state. This is also an account of how non-Amerindian Guyanese envisage Amerindians as ‘past’ peoples. Hence, distinctions are made between Amerindian and non-Amerindian—us vs. them—where both identities become placed as opposite poles within a continuum. Emphasis is placed on the shifting relationships between these poles, but more specifically, the cultural paradigm through which these relationships are made possible. This paradigm, I suggest, may be understood in terms of polarities of difference, with regard to which Amerindians are constantly ambiguating/negotiating, disjoining, and resignifying notions of ‘who they are’. This thesis evidences this paradigm through an ethnography of some of those aspects of Wapichannao culture—village work, the shop, joking activity, culture shows—that are considered to be traditional on the one hand, and modern on the other. In doing so, an incongruous trend emerges, on which makes the classic imagery of Amerindian ontological homogeneity much more complex. Therefore, this thesis moves from the more traditional aspects of Wapichannao culture towards the nation-state, in order to take into account aspects of Amerindian experience absent from classic ethnographic accounts.


A taste of movement : an exploration of the social ethics of the Tsimanes of lowland Bolivia

Ellis, Rebecca (1997)

This thesis explores Tsimane understandings and creations of varying forms of sociality. Each chapter addresses different but related issues concerning sociality. Fieldwork was carried out in three riverine settlements over the period from December 1991 to August 1994. The thesis shows that sociality is created and perpetuated by individuals as a processual endeavour, and does not amount to a tangible structure predicated upon fixed social relationships. Community in a physically bound sense is not found amongst the Tsimanes. Given forms of sociality are shown to rest more upon an appropriateness or inappropriateness of mood or affectivity. These are created and effected by subtle details of each individual’s presence amongst others. Social presence is understood by the Tsimanes as both potentially nurturant and predatory. Tsimanes are explicit about their ideas of preferred and abhorred social presence and behaviour of human and non-human others. This thesis explores ways in which such ideas are articulated to create a discourse on social ethics. A Tsimane aesthetics of social living carries with it practical implications for creating and perpetuating forms of sociality. An underlying theme of the thesis is one of mobility and the oscillating nature of Tsimane movements between different groups of kin and affines, and between moods and forms of sociality. I demonstrate that the high value placed by the Tsimanes upon movement, and the enjoyment they experience from it, most efficiently enable the achievement of correct social existence. A lack of knowledge and intention, ultimately resulting in illness and death, are principally deemed to occur as a result of immobility.


Space, time and harmony : symbolic aspects of language in Andean textiles with special reference to those from Bolivar Province (Cochabamba, Bolivia).

Crickmay, Lindsey (1992)

The thesis investigates how the designs woven in Andean textiles make up a symbolic language which both communicates information about those who wear them and demonstrates their desire to balance the opposing forces which are believed to govern their world. All textile elements share this communicative function and the thesis examines the significance of spin, colour and layout in the textile as a whole and in the individual designs. Textile terminology is drawn from fieldwork, the literature and from early Aymara and Quechua lexicons. The contemporary designs examined were personally observed in Bolivar in 1982/3 and 1986; the thesis suggests their derivation from colonial designs and discusses their possible iconographic content. Part one shows the significance of clothing as a statement of identity and describes briefly the weaving techniques and figures typical of the Bolivar area. Part two shows how cloth is seen as a vital, three-dimensional object and how in weaving as in the other plastic arts designs are encoded with abstract concepts fundamental to the traditions of a social group. Part three examines how certain colour combinations represent social, political or cosmic tensions and how their arrangement attempts to manipulate and control the energy generated by them. In particular it investigates how colour represents the circulation of suerte, or fortune, many of the names of which are also terms for colour combinations similar to those used in textiles. It also shows how specific elements such as stripes and figured designs act as metaphors through which the textile becomes a map or record of social, ritual and cosmic space.


The implications of manioc cultivation in the culture and mythology of the Machiguenga of South Eastern Peru

Lewington, Anna (1986)

The aim of this thesis is to effect an introduction to the place of manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in the culture of the Machiguenga Indians of the Peruvian rain forest. The main substance of my work finds its focus in a myth, the narrative of which was recorded during fieldwork on location in the Urubamba region of south east Peru. My thesis will attempt to examine the role of manioc and the justification of its description as a ‘sacred plant’ to the Machiguenga. The evidence I put forward to demonstrate the significance of manioc comes under the following headings: a) manioc cultivation and dietary uses, b) manioc plant taxonomy, c) the manioc myth itself, which I have transcribed and translated from my recordings. Whilst the anthropological structures of the myth are examined, no attempt will be made to deal in detail with the vocabulary and morphology of the Machiguenga language. Whilst conceding that it is vital to show the connection between the material use of manioc and the belief structure surrounding it, material already collected would suggest a more ambitious piece of work than a Master of Philosophy degree would allow, and I hope in the future to undertake full-scale investigation into this largely untouched aspect of Machiguenga social and religious organization. The present work aims only at an introduction to the people and their use of manioc, and the presentation of the manioc myth.


Kametsa asaiki : the pursuit of the 'good life' in an Ashaninka village (Peruvian Amazonia)

Sarmiento Barletti, Juan Pablo (2011)

This thesis is an ethnographic study of the pursuit of kametsa asaiki (‘the good life’) in an Ashaninka village by the Bajo Urubamba River (Peruvian Amazonia). My study centres on Ashaninka social organization in a context made difficult by the wake of the Peruvian Internal War, the activities of extractive industries, and a series of despotic decrees that have been passed by the Peruvian government. This is all framed by a change in their social organization from living in small, separated family-based settlements to one of living in villages. This shift presents them with great problems when internal conflicts arise. Whilst in the past settlements would have fissioned in order to avoid conflict, today there are two related groups of reasons that lead them to want to live in centralised communities. The first is their great desire for their children to go to school and the importance they place on long-term cash-crops. The second is the encroachment of the Peruvian State and private companies on their territory and lives which forces them to stay together in order to resist and protect their territory and way of life. I suggest that this change in organisation changes the rules of the game of sociality. Contemporary Ashaninka life is centred on the pursuit of kametsa asaiki, a philosophy of life they believe to have inherited from their ancestors that teaches emotional restraint and the sharing of food in order to create the right type of Ashaninka person. Yet, at present it also has new factors they believe allow them to become ‘civilised’: school education, new forms of leadership and conflict resolution, money, new forms of conflict resolution, intercultural health, and a strong political federation to defend their right to pursue kametsa asaiki. My thesis is an anthropological analysis of the 'audacious innovations' they have developed to retake the pursuit of kametsa asaiki in the aftermath of the war. I show that this ethos of living is not solely a communal project of conviviality but it has become a symbol of resistance in their fight for the right to have rights in Peru.


Between the Ayllu and the nation-state : intertextuality and ambiguities of identity in San Pablo de Lípez

Bolton, Margaret (2001)

This thesis is based on fieldwork carried out in San Pablo de Lípez province, Bolivia. Through an examination of the history of the region, economic activities, ritual and oral histories, it seeks to understand the sorts of relations that have come to exist between a rural Andean group and the Bolivian nation-state and, in particular, the ways in which rural people understand themselves in the face of the state’s nation-building activities. The thesis is thus situated within the framework of studies of mestizaje, or of hybridity of peoples and cultures, and of nation-state and Indian in Latin America. The thesis proposes a model to account for the ways in which contemporary people in Sud Lípez understand themselves and others. This takes into account the historical dimension and attempts to avoid reifications of such groupings as ‘Indian’, mestizo and Spaniard, and of ethnic groups in the more abstract sense. Central to it is the concept of intertextuality, a term borrowed from linguistic theory and literary criticism that derives largely from Bakhtin’s ideas of dialogue. Intertextuality emphasises the heterogeneity of texts and the diverse elements from which they are made. The thesis is concerned primarily with discourses that surround categories of people. In contemporary Bolivia, such discourses include a current official discourse of pluralism and ethnic diversity which, it could be said, is in dialogue with ideas of homogenisation, assimilation of the Indian population, and the mestizo nation that became prominent following the National Revolution of 1952. This dialogue between contemporary discourses can be held to constitute a ‘horizontal axis’ of intertextuality. A ‘vertical axis’, which forms the context for the present-day dialogue, is in turn constituted by the discourses and dialogues surrounding categories of people throughout the colonial and early republican eras. The historical focus of the thesis allows a consideration of these past discourses. The central chapters of the thesis focus on the relation between discourse and material practices. Chapters 5 and 6 show how discourses concerning identity are reflected in everyday life in San Pablo. Chapters 7 and 8 concern ritual, and focus on local and national identity. These chapters start by attempting to divide rituals of the state from rituals of the locality and introduce the idea that people are cast as ‘consumers’ for rituals of the state, while they are the ‘producers’ of rituals of their own locality (c.f. de Certeau 1984). Ultimately, however, the chapters conclude that such a division is not as clear as it might at first appear, and that it is not a simple matter to separate productive from consumptive practices and the tactics of consumers from the strategies of producers. The chapters end by suggesting that local people have a greater degree of agency than the initial model allowed, and with the proposition that through ritual they produce a locality (Appadurai 1995) that incorporates belonging to the nation. The thesis concludes that agency is essential to the process through which the people of San Pablo arrive at an understanding of themselves and the nation-state. Agency enables them to put themselves beyond the categories that others imagine, that is, to adopt a strategy of making themselves indeterminate. Local people may inherit discourses from the past, and are aware of those of the present, but they do not merely adhere to them, nor do they simply rearrange their elements. They may adopt elements from the different discourses that surround them, but in so doing, they transform them.


Symbolic arrangement and communication in the despacho

Armstrong, Gweneth (1990)

The thesis investigates the content and composition of the despacho, the ritual offering used to propitiate principal earth deities in the Bolivian mining town of Oruro (Department of Oruro). The despacho is also designed to increase suerte which is viewed not only in terms of material fortune, but also personal well-being and harmony with the cosmos. The concepts and terminology of the despacho are discussed, as well as the different types of despacho used, and particular features of their content, composition and presentation. The first part of the thesis shows how the content and arrangement of the despacho constitute a symbolic language, communicating what is important about suerte, and creating a miniature picture of life on earth in all its abundance. The despacho’s symbolic language is particularly meaningful in terms of suerte and the Quechua and Aymara peoples’ worldview. The second part of the thesis investigates the use of six different curing mesas used in a ritual ceremony to restore suerte following a coca divination ceremony. Both ceremonies were performed by an Aymara ritual specialist from a village south of Oruro. The content and function of each mesa is discussed, and I show how the six mesas were used in a sequence to describe a transition from mala suerte to suerte, and as part of a broader sequence of ritual events. In this part of the thesis I demonstrate how symbolic language is also used in healing mesas to describe and bring about changes between different states, and to create access to suerte in ritual.


Los urbanizadores de Arequipa : a study of the effects of urbanization on Quechua folklore, language and traditions in a southern Peruvian city

Adams, Stewart I. M. (1980)

The thesis endeavours to assess the changes which have taken place, due to urbanization, in certain fundamental aspects of Quechua culture among migrants from the Southern Peruvian Sierra who have settled in the pueblos jóvenes, “shanty towns” of Arequipa, Peru. In 7 chapters, based on material taped from 45 Quechua informants, the thesis discusses the urban milieu, evidence for the continuance of a riddling tradition, a folk song tradition, and traditional Quechua belief systems in the city. The thesis also examines the linguistic aspect of Quechua in the urban environment, whether it still constitutes a functional means of communication, and whether the closer proximity to Spanish in the city has resulted in what might be classed as an urban dialect of Quechua. The thesis concludes that whereas Quechua immigrants to the city have been willing to adapt to city life in its more material aspects, in the more symbolic aspects of their culture, they have been less willing to change. Consequently, many features of Quechua culture appear, for the present, to be thriving in the city. Evidence for the survival of the symbolic aspects of Quechua culture are contained throughout the main body of the thesis in the Quechua transcriptions and English/Spanish translations of interviews given by informants, in the English translations of the riddles, in the synopses of the folktales narrated by the informants, and in the appendices, where the full Quechua transcriptions of some 32 folktales, 36 riddles and 24 songs are contained. The thesis maintains that the Quechua immigrants to Arequipa constitute a new subculture which looks to the city for material support, but which is still heavily based on Quechua linguistic and cultural values. There has been a weakening of Quechua language and cultural traits in the city as a result of urbanization, but there does not appear to be the wholesale adoption of “western” ways to the detriment of Indian language and culture as was once suspected.


Of life and happiness : morality, aesthetics, and social life among the southeastern Amazonian Mebengokré (Kayapó), as seen from the margins of ritual

Oliveira, Adolfo de (2003)

This thesis deals with different aspects of the processes of production of sociability among the Xikrin-Mebengokré of the Cateté River, central Brazil. I focus on ceremonies and their performance, as ways of access to Mebengokré conceptions concerning the morality and aesthetics of social life. I analyse the semiotics of ‘kin’-ship production, the performative aspects of emotion as a sociability tool, the use of song and dance for the co-ordination of collective technical tasks, and a Mebengokré ‘theory of language’ as social agency. In the conclusion I focus on the criticism of some of the key theoretical aspects of Ge ethnology, in the light of my previous analysis.


Character and symbol in José Lezama Lima's 'Paradiso'

Ritchie, Fiona M. (1982)

This thesis explores the possibility of some degree of unity in Paradiso, which appears initially to be a work of poetic self-indulgence, lacking a coherent plot, credible characters and causality, and possessing seemingly extraneous chapters. In particular, the characters, with their one shared voice (Lezama’s) and apparently arbitrary appearances in independent scenarios, demand scrutiny. Lezama Lima's earlier works are devoted to his sistema poético, a working method aimed at a material representation of the mystical world of the Spirit in the "incarnate Word". Since the writer himself has defined Paradiso as a novela-poema, the novel is here examined as a poem, with the characters (recurring images) fulfilling symbolic roles. Luis Fernández Sosa’s reading of some of Lezama’s poems "anagogically" (following the terminology of Northrop Frye) is equally applicable to Paradiso, with its multiple levels of meaning. In Paradiso each act or incident is ritualized, suggesting that the characters are indeed symbolic and may attain the stature of archetypes. Characters derived from members of Lezama’s family circle acquire symbolic names and layer upon layer of additional imagery until they are expanded into archetypes. The recurring image of the (family) tree linking heaven and earth, continual emphasis on the cycle of birth/death/renewal and the main configurations, such as hero/princess/dragon/treasure, assist in the identification of the principal symbolic characters: Great Mother Goddess, Son/Lover, Dionysiac sacrifice, the questing Orpheus and the magnificent doomed Icarus. Each concept or character is a stepping-stone for the central auto- biographical figure, inspired by personal tragedy to seek self-perfection and accept his vocation. The stages on the journey --family relationships, the discovery and mastery of sexuality and creativity, the pursuit of infinite knowledge-- are presided over by a variety of tutors, not least Rialta, Cemí’s anima, poetic Muse and spiritual guide. Within Cemí’s heroic conquest of the Unconscious, the imagery of the quest yields much when interpreted in terms of Jungian archetypes. With his eventual assimilation of opposites, Cemí becomes actively contemplative, attuned to ritmo hesicástico and obedient to his calling. 'The analysis of character is the key to Lezama’s fictionalized autobiography, which emerges as a finely structured novel given precise form by its symbolic characters.


Cashinahua cosmovision : a perspectival approach to identity and alterity

Lagrou, Elsje Maria (1998)

This thesis explores the interface of social and cosmogonic thought in an indigenous society of the southwestern Brazilian Amazon. The first part sets out the Cashinahua ontological framework, describes key concepts and places the Cashinahua in the broader context of an Amerindian worldview where perspectivism and a special philosophical interest in the questions of alterity and identity are central issues. These questions are dealt with by means of a complex dualistic symbolism that pervades the fields of ethnicity, gender, social life and ritual. The second part of the thesis is divided into two chapters (chapters III and IV). Chapter three sets out the mythological framework in which the key concepts previously described gain a narrative form, while chapter IV describes the Nixpu pima initiation ritual of girls and boys and shows how this ritual represents an important moment of synthesis and actualisation of the Cashinahua worldview. The initiation ritual illustrates how the Cashinahua basic ontological distinctions between the embodied and rooted self as opposed to free-floating images and spirits are expressed in a graphic way and guide ritual action. Throughout the thesis references are also made to the intimate association and mutual illumination between, on the one hand, the Cashinahua worldview, social life and ontology, and, on the other, eschatology and indigenous conceptions of death.


Becoming similar : knowledge, sociality and the aesthetics of relatedness amongst the Nivacle of the Paraguayan Chaco

Grant, Suzanne (2006)

This thesis is an exploration of the concepts of knowledge, sociality and relatedness amongst the Nivacle indigenous people of the Paraguayan Chaco, concentrating particularly on the community of Jotoicha in the Mennonite Colonies of the Central Chaco region. A central issue in this thesis is the concept of "knowledge" as a relational capacity and the ways in which knowledgeable behaviour can be constitutive of aesthetically pleasing forms of sociality. Such practices can be generative of increased similarity between individuals over time. The thesis begins with an exploration of Nivacle understandings of "knowledge" and shows it to be an eminently social concept that is created in an organ located in the stomach known as the cachi. "Knowledge" for the Nivacle is the basis for an individual's social conscience, their productive and reproductive skills, as well as their inter-personal relationships. "Knowledge" is also a central aspect of Nivacle understandings of relatedness. Rather than being based on a static genealogical structure, relatedness is best understood within the context of lived relationships that are constantly evolving. These relationships are generated through the practices of feeding and caring for one's "close" kin, with such practices also being generative of sociality itself. However,"close" relationships are neither static nor geographically bounded and are always open to the possibility of re-activation through visiting and gift giving. The Nivacle have been inserted into the market economy for several decades. Wage labour is conceptualised alongside other "subsistence activities" and productive activities are generative both of gender relations and sociality itself. In the final chapter I discuss Nivacle notions of reciprocity within the context of team-based sporting events. I show that whilst such community-based divisions appear to be premised on relations of "sameness" and "difference," they are best understood within the context of an overarching desire for people to generate similarity between different kinds of people in a variety of contexts.


The language of Quechua rural teachers in Bolivia: a study of bilingualism - interlingualism among rural Quechua native speakers

Yraola-Burgos, Ana-Maria (1995)

This is a study of the linguistic situation of contemporary Bolivia carried out between 1990 and 1993. It attempts to delimit a particular speech community (that of bilingual rural school teachers in the Quechua speaking region). It started as a study for delimiting the Spanish dialects spoken in Bolivia, seeking explanations for possible deviations from standard Spanish in the influence and actions of the mother tongue, Quechua. However, as the analysis progressed, I found increasingly a certain systematicity in the characteristics of the presumed Spanish dialect. Although there existed a determined structural transference, this did not reflect merely a direct transcription from the mother tongue Quechua, since it was not always possible to determine whether it was the result of transference from this language, or if it could be explained in terms of the non-native language. Finding some analogy with the conclusions of Labov concerning the English spoken by blacks in New York, I considered that the best explaination would be to interpret the speech in question as the expression of a distinct code. In summary, this thesis comes down specifically to the demonstration, by means of the analysis of the characteristic structures of the Spanish spoken by rural school teachers in the Quechua speaking areas of Bolivia, that the code they use as their habitual medium of communication is an interlanguage in the process of forming itself into a new code of the creole type, what we call a semilanguage. The existence of the semilanguage could also be proved in the observation of a series of social and psycological factors which affect its speakers. We could see that the teachers form an intermediate group, which is the product of a process of adaptation, and in which the confluence of certain values and attitudes has provoked the rise of hybrid values and behaviour, tending to create a new order which involves a new culture and thus a new code of expression.


A grammar of Resígaro

Allin, Trevor R. (1976)

The thesis gives a description within the framework of tagmemic theory of Resigaro, a South American Indian language of the Huitoto group, spoken in the region between the Amazon and the Putumayo, in north-eastern Peru. The Introduction reviews critically previous work on the language, and sets out modifications in tagmemic theory which it is claimed avoid circularity and repetition and improve the description. Principal among these is a strict separation of the three modes of Contrast, Variation and Distribution, and the use of multiplication of derive structures. Part I of the thesis describes the first two levels of the Phonological Hierarchy - Phoneme level and Syllable level. Part II describes the grammatical hierarchy, in which the following levels are set up: Root Stem Word (Group) (Piece) Phrase Clause Sentence (Group and Piece are sub-levels affecting only the Verb class.) Each Level is described in a separate chapter, starting at the lowest level (Root). Each class (Verb, Noun, Pronoun, etc.) is described in turn at each level at which it has elements. At Phrase level, Phrases are described as being either Endocentric or Axis-Relator. Endocentric Phrases (Verb, Noun, and Numeral) are described first. At Clause level, the description of Clause structure is preceded by a description of Clause-level tagmemes - first the nuclear, and then the peripheral tagmemes. It is indicated that this simplifies the presentation of Clause structure. Under Clause structure, the Declarative clause is described first, and other Clause classes are derived from this, viz.: Interrogative, Imperative, Nominalized and Relativized. The description of the Contrast and Variation modes of Sentence level is followed by an analysis of the first section of a text. Appendix I presents a lexicon of Resigaro in two parts: Part I is Resigaro-Spanish-English, and Part II is Spanish-Resigaro. Appendix II presents a 376-word four-language comparative word list for Resigaro, Bora, Ocaina and Huitoto Muinane


The astronomy of Andean myth : the history of a cosmology

Sullivan, William F. (1986)

The paper aims to show that Andean myth, on one level, represents a technical language recording astronomical observations of precession and, at the same time, an historical record of simultaneous social and celestial transformations. Topographic and architectural terms of Andean myth are interpreted as a metaphor for the organisation of and locations on the celestial sphere. Via ethnoastronmical data, mythical animals are identified as stars and placed on the celestial sphere according to their "topographical " location. Tested in the planetarium, these "arrays" generate clusters of dates - 200 B.C. and 650. A. D. Analysis of the names of Wiraqocha and Manco Capac indicates they represent Saturn and Jupiter and that their mythical meeting represents their conjunction in 650 A.D. The astronomy of Andean myth is then used as an historical tool to examine how the Andean priest-astronomers recorded the simultaneous creation of the ayllu and of this distinctive astronomical system about 200 B.C. The idea that the agricultural ayllu, with its double descent system stressing the importance of paternity, represents a transformation of society from an earlier matrilineal/horticultural era is examined in light of the sexual imagery employed in myth. Wiraqocha’s androgyny and the division of the celestial sphere into male (ecliptic) and -female(celestial equator = “earth” ) are interpreted as cosmological validations of the new social structure.


The making of real people : an interpretation of a morality-centred theory of sociality, livelihood and selfhood among the Muinane (Colombian Amazon)

Londoño Sulkin, Carlos David (2000)

In this monograph I interpret a wide-ranging native theory of sociality of the Muinane, an indigenous group of the Colombian Amazon. This theory simultaneously addresses their livelihood activities, some aspects of their phenomenological experience, their bodily form, their group identity, and their views on the achievement of a uniquely human, morally sociable way of life. The Muinane understand their thoughts/emotions as well as their bodies to be material in origin and character. Proper bodies and thoughts/emotions are made out of ritual substances and foodstuffs, which have divine subjectivities and agencies of their own, and which ‘sound’ through people, establishing people's subjectivities and agencies. Such subjectivities and agencies lead to the communal achievement of `coolness', the state of convivial sociability, tranquility, abundance and generalised good health that constitutes ideal community life. Because they share substances, kin are also understood to share bodily features and thoughts/emotions. Their consubstantiality leads to mutual love and to an intersubjectivity that enables them to live well together, without unseemly contestations or differences in ultimate moral purposes. However, the material character of bodies and thoughts/emotions is also a source of danger. Animals and other evil beings can sabotage proper community life by replacing people's moral substances with their own false ones, causing people to experience mad, envious, angry and even sorcerous thoughts/emotions, and to suffer from weakening or lethal bodily diseases. It is the moral obligation and inclination of properly constituted human beings to make new human beings, by intentionally forging their bodies, their thoughts/emotions and their ‘baskets of knowledge.’ They must do this by transforming evil substances into proper substances, through work and through everyday or sporadic rituals. The matters addressed in this monograph -native theories of sociality, of self, of livelihood and so on- are of central pertinence to ongoing discussions in Amazonianist anthropology.


Nahuatl in the Huasteca Hidalguense : a case study in the sociology of language

Stiles, Neville (1982)

This thesis examines the vitality of Hidalgo Nahuatl (HN) in the communities of Jaltocan, Panacaxtlan, Santa Cruz, Santa Teresa and Zohuala in the Huasteca Hidalguense, Mexico. The research, conducted in Mexico and St. Andrews University from 1976-1982, applies an analysis of HN within the framework of the Sociology of Language and Dependency Theory, thereby using a multi-disciplinary approach. Through an investigation of the historical, social, cultural and economic factors related to HN, the latter is embedded in its reality. HN is shown to be originally a language of dependency and oppression, supported by a long mestizo tradition of "caciquismo". It is demonstrated that an increasing number of Spanish (S) monolinguals, together with other socio-economic factors, is encouraging Nahuas to bilingualize and S:: =A. is fast becoming the new language of dependency. The Hidalgo Nahuas possess practical reasons for the acquisition of S., these being to solve their daily problems - especially land tenancy -, to communicate with the mestizo out-group and to undertake trading with non-HN speakers. However, the Nahuas are not surrendering their native language as they bilingualize, but rather, tend to limit its usage to native Nahua contexts and speakers. HN has become important to the Nahuas in order to demonstrate their ethnic identity and territoriality. The introduction of government projects to the communities, such as the Castellanizacion project or bilingual-bicultural education, are shown to be theoretically bilingual in approach, but fail to take into account sufficiently the regional Indian language in the praxis. The stable maintenance of HN is highlighted by statistical results from the word-count of recorded texts, documents and publications and the range of morphological phenomena affecting S. words in HN is described with examples from the Corpus. The linguistic interference from S. in HN is located within Dependency Theory and this author suggests the use of the term dependency word rather than loan word and dependency language, thus implying a diachronic sociological process which is reflected in HN. Extended Texts are offered as evidence of the linguistic standard of HN and attitudes of Nahuas towards their language are presented. The final conclusion is that modern HN is a viable, vital and functional language at the time of undertaking this research and demonstrates a frequent usage by a large number of speakers. HN has still not entered into:. -avital process of language death, as is the case in other Nahuatl-speaking regions of Mexico, and is still being maintained, particularly at community level, by adults and children alike.


The hearer, the hunter and the agouti head : aspects of intercommunication and conviviality among the Pa'ikwené (Palikur) of French Guiana

Passes, Alan (1998)

The thesis is in the broadest terms an anthropological exploration of intercommunication; it concerns concepts and practices of speech and hearing among a Lowland Amazonian people, the Pa'ikwene, concentrating particularly on the community of Deuxieme Village Esperance in southern Guyane (French Guiana). A significant aspect of the subject is the axiological one, i. e., the moral and aesthetic values attaching to proper dialogic, and consequently social, relations - or what Ingold describes (1986: 141) as the "conversation that is social life". Revealing the speech of ordinary people to be as `powerful' in its way as that of chiefs, the study addresses the instrumentality of speaking and hearing in the creation and maintenance of sociality. Essentially, I argue that intersubjective communication does not so much `imply' Pa'ikwene society (Levi-Strauss 1973: 390) as construct it as a sociable, pleasurable and egalitarian entity; that it is, in short, one of the fundamental `tools for conviviality' (Illich 1973). While the role of language in the process of society has long been recognised by anthropology, and comprehensively investigated, tht of listening to it seems, perhaps because of the more `private' nature of the act, not to have enjoyed the same level of sociological interest. Given this imbalance, special emphasis is laid on native audition as embodied by the cultural phenomenon of "Tchimap", "to hear-listen-understand", and its use in three key spheres, the political, economic and magico-religious. One central issue deals with the agency and perceived value of "good hearing" in the generation of good relations between humans, and of productive ones between humans and non-humans. Another major theme, of relevance to the ongoing theoretical debate on 'individualismcollectivism', involves the efficacy of "Tchimap" as a performative means of personal autonomy, within and as part of, rather than in opposition to, the group.


Quechua religious terms in the departments of Apurimac and San Martin, Peru

McIntosh, G. Stewart (1976)

My thesis "Quechua Religious Terms in the Departments of Apurimac and San Martin, Peru" deals with the problem of changing meaning-loads of Quechua religious terms. I chose the departments (counties) of Apurimac and San Martin as representative of a montana (jungle) and sierra (mountain) Quechua culture respectively. The purpose of the thesis is to show though the analysis from a corpus of one hundred and thirty-two terms that Quechua religious terms still carry much of tine nearing load they had before the Spanish conquest despite more than four hundred years of religious and other cultural pressures. This study also highlights the difficulties and unresearched areas in the fields of dialectology and folklore of the Quechua culture, a culture that is still very much the life of some ten million people in Latin America today.


Evangelization in the writings of Latin American liberation theologians

Pope-Levison, Priscilla (1988)

This dissertation investigates evangelization in the writings of ten Roman Catholic and Protestant theologians who were chosen due to their interaction with the major themes of Liberation Theology and their interest in evangelization. The six Roman Catholic theologians include Leonardo Boff, Segundo Gulilea, Gustavo Gutihrrez, Archbishop Oscar Romero, Juan Luis Segundo, and Jon Sobrino. The four Protestant theologians include Mortimer Arias, Emilio Castro, Orlando Costas, and Jose Miguez Bonino. Along with a chapter on each theologian, two separate chapters are devoted to a comparison of the Roman Catholics as a group and the Protestants as a group. The concluding chapter collects the findings and presents a common view of evangelization in Latin American Liberation Theology. In addition, this thesis is set in its historical context with studies of evangelization in four Roman Catholic Documents – Vatican II, Medellin, Evanglii Nuntiandi, and Puebla, and WCC documents tram the New Delhi Assembly (1961) to the Vancouver Assembly (1983). This study demonstrates that evangelization is a central theme of Latin American Liberation Theology. Both Roman Catholic and Protestant liberation theologians devote a great deal of attention to this topic which serves for them as a bridge between theology and praxis. In the theological realm, evangelization is founded on the concept of the reign of God. III the arena of praxis, evangelization is centered on proclamation and action. In addition, evangelization stands as a theme around which Roman Catholic and Protestant liberation theologians unite; the similarities between them are significant and numerous. These theologians present a view of evangelization which has the potential to alter traditional understandings and existing structures of evangelization. Their concept of evangelization pioneers new frontiers as it interacts with liberation, the poor, denunciation, action, collective conversion, and a comprehensive view of the reign of God.


The biblical concept of conversion and its social implications from a Latin American perspective

Mahecha, Guidoberto (1991)

This work presents a concept of conversion using the researches of Liberation theologians and the relation of Jesus to four groups in the Synoptics. In chapter one, the main concern is the hermeneutical problem as it defines the kind of emphasis the interpretation of the Bible will support. Liberation theology focuses on its context as the key aspect for a practical interpretation. In chapter two six Liberation theologians are studied with a focus on the concept of conversion. All of them criticize the type of conversion that has produced a Christianity centered on spiritual features and disregarding the Latin American situation. In chapter three the situation of Palestine in Jesus' time is described and the political, economic, and religious situation is explored. The aim of this chapter is to show that Jesus was born and lived under political, economic, and religious oppression. In chapter four the relationship of Jesus to four groups is stated. In relation to the Pharisees, two aspects are considered: that the table-fellowship of Jesus with the outcasts produced a confrontation with the Pharisees; and that, at least one time, Jesus talked about overriding the Law because of the Kingdom of God. In relation to the religious authorities, Jesus prophetically rejected the Temple and Its system. In relation to the Roman authorities, Jesus established that all things belong to God and that loyalty to any government must be relative. In relation to the rich and the poor, Jesus stressed through hard criticism of riches that the Good News are preferentially to the poor. In the conclusion, using "the relation of relationship" model of C. Boff, it is stated that the concept of conversion of Liberation theologians with social, economic and political implications, is based on the Scriptures and it is the best solution for Christianity in an oppressive situation.


When sadness is beautiful : a study of the place of rationality and emotions within the social life of the Àve de Jesus

Campos, Roberta Bivar Carneiro (2000)

The ethnographic object of study of my thesis is a group of penitents, called ‘Ave de Jesus’, that dwells in the hinterlands of Northeast Brazil. As many other groups and penitents of this area they have a strong devotion to Padre Cicero -a deceased priest who founded the city in which they live, Juazeiro do Norte - who they believe to be Jesus himself. In fact, according to them, all the events of the Bible there in Juazeiro do Norte, such that they live in a biblical time, the Bible being their actual history which should culminate in destruction - A final end to the world. The Ave de Jesus have incorporated into their form of life the ways of being and relating to the world of those missionaries and religious leaders from the past, such as Padre Ibiapina, Antonio Conselheiro, Padre Cicero, and many ‘beatos’ who wandered throughout the ‘Sertao’* preaching penance and charity. Although these religious images make a lot of sense for those who live in such a harsh area as the ‘Sertoes’, there is no doubt that they are also in conflict with the mainstream system of interpretation of reality. In my thesis I explore how the biblical images take part in the construction and negotiation of truth and meaning, and how they work as references for acting, thinking and ‘feeling’. Because these biblical images are invariably related to moral sentiments - such as compassion, generosity, mercy, commiseration and a highly moral evaluation of the experience of suffering - that underlies the way of life of many penitents in Juazeiro, my thesis focuses on the social role of emotion in building up truth and creating sociability. The Chapter I provides the Introduction in which is given a bibliographical review on messianic and millenarian movements and pilgrimage, and points to my own theoretical choice. It is also in the introduction that I discuss the issue of rationality, ideology and narratives related to the problem of my research and the methodological approach. In Chapter III provide an overall ethnography of penance within the surrounds of Juazeiro do Norte in the past and present. In Chapter III I first introduce a brief ethnography of the Ave de Jesus. In Chapter IV I explore the situation of conflict between systems of interpretation within which Master Jose - the leader of the Ave de Jesus - finds himself. The subject of discussion in this chapter is the role of the affective and beauty in negotiating meaning and constructing truth. In Chapter VI dwell upon Emotions. In this chapter I provide a discussion concerning the importance of emotions in understanding the way of life of many penitents in Juazeiro do Norte, with special attention to the Ave de Jesus. Another subject of discussion is what an emotion is about and their relation to action and thought. In my ethnography and interpretation of emotions I have focused on those emotions which are cognitively stressed by the Ave de Jesus, such as suffering, compassion, mercy, etc. which underlies their form of life. In Chapter VI I provide a discussion on how images of charity are related to an ideal image of society -a Utopia. By going deeper into the relation between images of suffering, poverty and mendicancy I explore how the Ave de Jesus creates a sociality based on generosity, hospitality and sharing whereby they realise a messianic expectation. In the Conclusion I have tried to answer the main task of my thesis, that is, to provide an understanding of how sadness is beautiful. Through all the issues elected to for discussion in each chapter I intend to give support to my interpretation of the role and importance of emotions within the social life of the Ave de Jesus. *The semi-arid backlands of Northeast Brazil


Fertile words : aspects of language and sociality among Yanomami people of Venezuela

Rubio, Javier Carrera (2004)

In the first part of the thesis (Chapters I to 7)1 discuss two Yanomami myths of origin, namely the myth of the origin of the night, and the myth of the master of banana plants. While drawing heavily on Lizot's ethnographical and linguistic work, my analysis of the myth will be embedded within two interconnected debates of present concern to anthropology: On the one hand, the strong linkage between the poetics of myth narration and the poetics of the everyday life. To better explore this relationship I will also drawn on Overing's recent work on the fundamental importance of understanding the political philosophy that pervades such linkage. On the other hand there is also the important role that the world of the felt, the senses and passions play in Yanomami conceptions and practices of sociality. In part 2 of the thesis, I deal with the issue of Yanomami warfare by describing Yanomami people's understanding of warfare. In doing this, I endeavour to develop a shift from the anthropologist's theories of war among the Yanomami to the Yanomami's own theories about both peace and its failure. War and conflict are addressed here from the point of view of the Yanomami aesthetics of their own convivial relations and sociality, along with its multiple oral expressions. I demonstrate that Yanomami people have their own (strong) theories about what is conducive to peace and war and how these theories are grounded in moral and political values attached to a particular Yanomami aesthetics of egalitarianism. In doing this, I explore the way Lizot emphasises the dialectic between Yanomami conceptions of peace and warfare. Furthermore, through an exploration of the linkage Lizot establishes between Yanomami warfare and their morality, I wish to shed new light on the political dimensions of their conflicts and the place of warfare in their culturally specific aesthetics of egalitarian relationships. Part 3 of the thesis (chapters 9, 10, 11) deals with the Yanomami elders' speech, a mode of communication that has been almost neglected in other previous works. After having discussed various topics (myth and the everyday, Yanomami warfare) through which various aspects of Yanomami moral and political philosophy can be grasped, in this last part of the thesis I show the strong linkage between such philosophy and this type of speech. The elders' speech is dealt with in various parts of the thesis and also in various ways. First, and departing from the way a myth of origin explicitly makes references to it, I illustrate, the way Yanomami people conceive of this type of speech. I do this by describing, following Hymes' (1981,2003) insights, the way in which the myth teller "describes" this speech in his narrative. Second, in Chapter 3, I make a brief description of the speech and in Chapters 9, 10, and 11 I provide fragments of the speech of an elder that I transcribed and analysed.


The application of geomatic technologies in an indigenous context : Amazonian Indians and indigenous land rights

Menell, David (2003)

Indigenous people have employed Western analogue techniques (maps, charts, etc) to support their land rights ever since their traditional territories came under threat. Although indigenous groups utilise such tools there is still a significant divide between the epistemological conception of these analogue techniques and the ontology of the indigenous people. This research looks at one of the latest technologies to be utilised by indigenous peoples, that of geomatics technologies. It examines their design and application using the analytical techniques of anthropology juxtaposed with the geographical methodologies. Using both the literature and three case studies drawing from fieldwork conducted in the Peruvian Amazonian I argue that although previous analogue techniques carried a certain epistemological baggage, they were effectively neutral and did not impact of the ontology of the indigenous peoples. Geomatics technologies are not neutral and carry more than just baggage, so they are not so simply appropriated. Indigenous conceptions of landscape are not compatible with the current design of geomatics technologies but indigenous federations are increasingly employing them. The indigenous federation along with non-governmental organisations adopt the geomatics technologies because of their perceived authority in land rights and their applications in land management and saving cultural heritage. The State recognises this authority because the design and output of geomatics conforms to its legal system. However, indigenous peoples have a different agenda and conception of land rights. Their agenda is based on revitalising their heritage and land rights derived through self-determination. This research reveals such issues of power, politics and authenticity behind its application and the ontological and epistemological philosophy of its design.


Kinship and the saturation of life among the Kuna of Panamá

Margiotti, Margherita (2010)

This thesis is an ethnographic analysis of kinship among the Kuna of the San Blas Archipelago of eastern Panamá, which focuses on the creation of bodies and persons. San Blas island villages are characterized by a compact layout and a burgeoning demographic concentration in relation to space. Despite land is available on surrounding mainland areas, the Kuna continue living in nucleated villages, emphasizing kinship as the value of a life in spatial and social concentration. By describing quotidian life in one Kuna community, this thesis considers what it means to live in concentration from a Kuna perspective, and how wellbeing is created through daily practices and rituals aimed at contrasting the social disengagement, that people consider an effect of domestic splitting, the ramification of collateral ties, and illnesses inflicted by invisible pathogenic beings. My analysis focuses on two main lines of enquiry: 1) the progression of social relations from close to distant. Beginning from the house, where the bodies of co-residents are made consubstantial through commensality, the thesis analyses marriageability as the management of social distance, and the celebration of communal drinking festivals as the re-patterning of relations with different types of non-kin (e.g. non co-resident kin, the dead, and pathogenic spirits) for the regeneration of fertility and wellbeing. 2) It focuses on the person and discusses how adults make sense of babies and processes of body and kinship making in relation to non-human beings. By describing how ritual and micro-quotidian practices operate according to patterns of density and repetition, this thesis demonstrates that concentration and saturation are the core notions of sociality and personhood for the Kuna. The thesis argues that saturation is interior to the ongoing creation of kinship.


Syntactic relations in San Martin Quechua

Howkins, Angela (1977)

Linguistic description has been described as "the application of a particular linguistic theory to a selected field of linguistic phenomena". The thesis presented here offers a partial application of Axiomatic Functionalism, (partial because its concern is with syntax only), to data collected on the San Martín dialect of Quechua. Proportionate to the whole body of Quechua studies, there has been little produced on the syntax of any Quechua dialect. Most syntactic studies, as do the large majority of phonological and morphological studies, use American methodology, be it based on Bloomfieldian linguistics, or be it based on those of Chomsky. The present methodology stands diametrically opposed to both schools of American linguistics cited above, and as a result introduces a fresh approach to the study of the syntactic aspect of Quechua. With Axiomatic functionalism, a new way of looking at Quechua grammar is presented and thus much of what is accepted "fact" reappraised. For this reason, while the concern of the thesis is with producing a description of syntactic relations in San Martín Quechua under the terms of Axiomatic Functionalism, reference is made to descriptions of other Quechua dialects, most notably where the application of Axiomatic Functionalism produces statements containing certain phenomena which are quite different from statements made on equivalent phenomena in other dialects using a different linguistic theory. Moreover, Axiomatic Fundamentalism is a deductive theory, and so statements regarding the data contained in the description are not statements of "fact", but are hypotheses which may stand as valid hypotheses regarding the data unless they can be refuted. Given that the theoretical base on which the description rests is different from that used in other descriptions of Quechua dialects, and so that the hypotheses made regarding syntactic relations in San Martín Quechua may be tested, Part I of the thesis is given over to the theoretical side of the work: to explaining the relation between theory and description in Chapter I, to giving brief explications of those notions in the theory which have particular relevance for a syntactic description in Chapter II, and in noting some of the limits set to the selection of the data for description in Chapter III./ The axioms and definitions of the theory are given in Appendix A. Part II of the thesis, which is in six chapters, deals with the description proper. Structures which may stand as sentences are established and analysed into their constituent structures, the relations between each constituent being ascertained. Analysis is carried through to the stage where there are no constituents analysable in syntactic terms left.


Carving wood and creating shamans : an ethnographic account of visual capacity among the Kuna of Panamá

Fortis, Paolo (2008)

This thesis is an ethnographic account of the carving of wooden ritual statues and of the shamanic figure of the seer among the Kuna of the San Blas archipelago of Panamá. Through a study of the production of wooden ritual statues and of the birth and initiation of seers, I show that the distinction between the visible and the invisible, and between designs and images, is a crucial aspect of Kuna ways of thinking and experiencing their world. On one hand, the Kuna theory of design shows the importance of the development of social skills in the creation of person and sociality. On the other hand, the Kuna concept of image points to the relation between human and ancestral beings and to the transformative capacities of both. Through the constant interplay of the two categories, people interact with cosmic forces and create social life. The ethnography explores three aspects of the problem. First, the relationship between the islands inhabited by Kuna people and the mainland forest is described, focusing on the distance and separation of the two domains. The forest is perceived as a space populated by ancestral animal and tree entities, as well as demons and souls of the dead. Second, the carving of the ritual statues and the skill of Kuna carvers are described in relation to human and supernatural fertility. The birth of seers, different from that of other babies, provides evidence of the importance of natal design as the potential skills of each person. Third, relationships between human and supernatural beings are described considering Kuna myth and ritual action, in comparison with other indigenous American societies. This thesis concludes that it is through carving wooden statues and developing the capacity to see, Kuna people seek security in social life and protection from a predatory cosmos.


Gente de isla - island people : an ethnography of Apiao, Chiloé, southern Chile

Bacchiddu, Giovanna (2008)

This thesis is based upon fieldwork carried out in the island of Apiao, in the archipelago of Chiloé, southern Chile. It is an ethnographic exploration of the way the small community of Apiao conceive of communication and interaction with both fellow human beings and supernatural creatures. The thesis describes details of every day life, with an emphasis on visiting as the main mode of social interaction. Through reciprocal hospitality the islanders enact balanced reciprocal exchange. Food and drink is offered and received; this is always returned in equal measure with a return visit. Visits between friends or neighbours are articulated according to a formal ritualistic etiquette based on asking. Balance is temporarily interrupted and small debts incurred when favors are asked. These must be reciprocated promptly. Momentary interruption of equilibrium perpetuates relations among people who describe themselves as being 'all the same'. Marriage equates to forming an independent, productive unit with a focus on inhabitants of households rather than on family in terms of decent or blood ties. Kinship terms are limited to the word mama and this refers to the grandmother, the focal role in raising children. Active memory as expression of love and care is what makes people related to each other. Kin ties must be kept active by constant love and care. Forgetful kin are in turn forgotten and slowly erased from memory. The thesis shows that religious beliefs are centered on exchange relationships with powerful entities that belong to the supernatural world. The dead and the miraculous San Antonio are powerful and ambivalent: they protect and help the living but can be revengeful and harmful if neglected by the living. Novenas are offered to the dead and the San Antonio in exchange for protection and miracles. Novenas represent a public and powerful ritual display of hospitality, enacting values of memory, solidarity and exchange.


Seville : between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, 1248-1492 : pre-Columbus commercial routes from and to Seville

Serradilla Avery, Dan Manuel (2007)

The city of Seville and its port have had a prominent place in the history of early modern Europe and America. This city was not only the Gate of the Indies, but also the Gate of Europe for all the exotic goods and people that arrived in Europe via Seville's port. How this city achieved such a prominent place has traditionally been overshadowed by its post-1492 fame. This thesis demonstrates how, during the two hundred or so years before Columbus, different groups were able to shape this city into a commercial port that had made it the axis between the Mediterranean's commercial routes and those of the Atlantic Ocean. Beginning in 1248, with the Christian re-conquest, the monarchs set out to create an independent and powerful municipality, as well as a merchant class with distinctive city quarters and privileges. In turn, this merchant class affected the policies of both monarchy and city-council. Eventually, the policies of both merchants and the city-council led to the creation of an important exchange port that lay nearly between the two bodies of water. The Castilian monarchs, aware of this, also began the construction of the first Royal Ware houses and Dockyards, as well as determining the location of the Castilian Armada. It was those years between 1248 and 1492 that witnessed the birth of one of the most important naval ports of European history.